Sloe Pug spreading in Devon?

Sloe Pug Pasiphila chloerata has an interesting history in Britain. Due to its close similarity to the very common Green Pug P. rectangulata, Sloe Pug wasn’t discovered in Britain until 1971, although it had undoubtedly been resident for a long time.

It is now known to be a widespread moth, found as far north as Cumbria, but it does not seem to occur in the far west of England or Wales.  There are very few Devon records and until recently it was thought to be confined to the far eastern edge of the county along the Dorset border.

However, last year confirmed records of Sloe Pug were received from Exmouth and  Orley Common, Ipplepen (near Newton Abbot), greatly extending the known range of the moth westwards.

Most recently, Barry Henwood, the County Moth Recorder, caught a Sloe Pug (shown below) in his garden at Abbotskerswell (only a few miles from Orley Common) on 1st June 2014, raising the possibility that the moth is spreading and may now be more widespread in the county.

Sloe Pug in Devon (June 2014) (Barry Henwood)

Sloe Pug in Devon (June 2014) (Barry Henwood)

It is possible to distinguish Sloe Pug and Green Pug on external characters. The adults of both species are greenish, fading with age. When fresh, Green Pug is brighter green. The first difference to notice is that the postmedian line of the Green Pug has a jagged appearance (with two strong angulations), whereas the same line on Sloe Pug is more of a gentle curve. Sloe Pug has a brick-red ‘belt’ on the base of the abdomen, which Green Pug does not have.

Once you think you have a candidate for Sloe Pug, put it in a jar and look through the glass at the underside of the hindwing. There the post-median line forms an acute angle in Green Pug but an obtuse angle in Sloe Pug.

Further Devon records accompanied by good photos of upper-side and under-side (through glass) would be very welcome.

Eggciting moths

The Small Eggar Eriogaster lanestrisis a particularly prized spring moth in Devon. Not only is it an attractive species (see pic below), it is also a scarce moth in the county and a difficult one to see as it flies early in the year.

There are only eight previous records of adult Small Eggars in the Devon Moth Group database this century; sightings of the caterpillars which live in large silken nests on bushes and trees are more common.

This year, amazingly, Small Eggar adults were recorded in two different places in mid-Devon on the same night (31 March) by Group members. Paul Butter recorded one in his moth trap near Okehampton, while Stella Beavan found two in her trap at Zeal Monachorum.

Just goes to show that there are great rewards for those who keep recording moths through the colder months of the year.

Small Eggar (Stella Beavan)

Small Eggar (Stella Beavan)

Annual report for 2013 published

Devon moth report 2013 front cover_2Devon Moth Group’s report on moth goings on in the county during last year has been published and is being circulated to members.

It reports on a year of two contrasting halves – a cold first six months with disappointing moth numbers and then, starting with the heatwave in July, am excellent second half of the year with bumper catches in moth traps and an exciting autumn immigration that bought scarce, exotic moths to our shores.

Nearly 43,000 moth records were submitted for 2013 by Group members and other recorders – a big increase on the number for the wet summer of 2012 and the second highest annual total ever received by Devon Moth Group. Many thanks to everyone who let us know about their sightings!

The Annual Report contains a full list of all the moth species (micros and macros) recorded in Devon during 2013 together with commentry on notable sightings and migrants by the County Recorder, Barry Henwood, and micro-moth expert Bob Heckford.

Migrant moths

Autumn is typically an exciting time of the year for those interested in moths. Although the great diversity of British moths that are around during the warm summer months is starting to fade, it is the peak time of year for moth immigration.

In good autumns, such as in 2011, huge numbers of moths can arrive in Britain from southern Europe or even North Africa, borne in on warm southerly winds. While some of these are common and familiar migrants such as the Silver Y, Dark Swordgrass and Humming-bird Hawk-moth, other much rarer and more exotic-looking species can arrive, such as the sinister Death’s Head Hawk-moth, the stunning Crimson Speckled, Dewick’s Plusia and Purple Marbled.

The number of exicitng immigrant moths has started to rise in Devon and neighbouring counties in recent weeks with, for example, sightings of the very rare Rosy Underwing in Dorset and Cornwall. This species had only been recorded 10 times ever in Britain prior to this year, but there have already been three sightings in recent weeks (two in south Dorset and one on the Lizard, Cornwall).

I’ve not been lucky enough to see anything so rare (although with moth recording one always lives in hope) but have seen several immigrant Vestal moths in my garden in the last two weeks (one shown below). It’s well worth putting your moth trap out at night between the showers and also keeping your eyes peeled during the day as species such as Convolvulus Hawk-moth and Crimson Speckled are often spotted by day.

Vestal (Richard Fox)

Vestal (Richard Fox)

Moth bonanza at Marsland

Our recent field meeting at Devon Wildlife Trust’s Marsland nature reserve near Bude coincided with one of the best periods for moth trapping since the last decent summer, back in 2006.

A fantastic 98 species were identified during the evening – remarkable after very poor moth numbers during the first 6 months of this year.

These included lots of pretty species such as Ghost moth, Peach Blossom, Large Emerald (below), Poplar and Elephant Hawk-moths, Buff-tip and the stunning Garden Tiger.

Large Emerald (Chris Manley)

Large Emerald (Chris Manley)

The full species list for the event is here (in pdf format) Marsland moth records 13 July 2013

Small Eggar caterpillars

Small Eggar is a scarcely seen moth in Devon. The adult moths fly in late winter, a time of year when moth recorders tend not to be out and about. However, the colourful caterpillars live in groups and construct a characteristic silken ‘tent’ in hedgerows in spring and summer, and are more easily recorded. Nevertheless, we rarely receive more than a couple of records of this species each year.

Last weekend, David and Sue Mentz spotted a Small Eggar nest and caterpillars about 2m up in a hedge near Ide, on the outskirts of Exeter. One of their images is shown below.

If you spot Small Eggar caterpillars, please let us know, but be aware that there are other moth caterpillars that live in silken nests (e.g. Lackey), so photographs of the caterpillars would be very useful to confirm your sighting.

Small Eggar caterpillar (David & Sue Mentz)

Small Eggar caterpillar (David & Sue Mentz)

New Year moths

Happy New Year! And what a start it has been – dry days and mild nights have made for favourable conditions for moths, butterflies and other wildlife. Let’s hope the weather has made a New Year’s resolution and the seemingly endless rain that blighted 2012 is at an end.

Moths keep going right through the winter here in Devon and after Winter Moths and December Moths last month, January is bringing some new species out. Brindled Beauties, Spring Ushers and Dark Chestnuts are on the wing, in small numbers at least, and the first Epiphyas postvittana of the year have already started to appear in garden traps.

What’s more, with warm air coming from the south for the past few days (and nights!), there are migrant moths arriving. Seems amazing for the beginning of January, but immigrants such as Dark Swordgrass, Nomophila noctuella and Painted Lady butterfly have been recorded in southern England in recent days.

Well worth dusting off the moth-trap if you’d put it away for the winter, and please let us know about any recent moth sightings in the comments field below.

Shining Marbled – new for Devon

An incredibly rare immigrant moth, the Shining Marbled Pseudeustrotia candidula, only once seen in Britain before 2012 was caught by Allan Jenkins at Chardstock, north of Axminster on 18th August 2012. The specimen is shown below.

This is the first time that the Shining Marbled has ever been recorded in Devon.

The moth, which is native to central and eastern Europe, was first seen in Britain in 2006 in Herefordshire. There have been no other records until this year, when a handful of Shining Marbleds have been sighted across southern England (including the Devon example). Although the moth was caught in August, this highly significant record has only recently been reported to Devon Moth Group.

Shining Marbled

Little and Large – moths to look out for this week

Two moths currently around in Devon demonstrate the amazing size range of these fascinating insects.

Horse Chestnut Leaf-miner Cameraria ohridella (Brian Bewsher)

Cameraria ohridella, Horse Chestnut Leaf-miner, caught at light (Brian Bewsher)

One, Cameraria ohridella the Horse-chestnut Leaf Miner, is tiny, measuring only about 4mm from head to tip of its wings. Although sometimes caught in moth traps (including at this time of year), it is the blotchy leaf mines created by the moth’s larvae in the leaves of Horse Chestnut trees that are the most obvious sign of this species recent arrival in Devon.

The Horse-chestnut Leaf Miner was first recorded in Britain in London in 2002, but has spread extremely rapidly both west and northwards. The first Devon sighting was in 2007.

Convolvulus Hawk-moth (Brian Bewsher)

Convolvulus Hawk-moth rescued from a garden pond near Bovey Tracey (Brian Bewsher)

At the other end of the spectrum is the Convolvulus Hawk-moth. This giant has wings over 10 times the length of those of the Horse-chestnut Leaf Miner. Not only does the Convolvulus Hawk-moth have an impressive wingspan of around 11cm, it is also capable of long-distance migration. From its permanent range in Africa, some Convolvulus Hawk-moths fly northwards each year to breed in Europe. The best chance of seeing this moth in Devon is in the autumn and several have been sighted in the past week.

Tiverton rare moth find

An extremely rare immigrant moth, Diplopseustis perieresalis, was found by Andrew Cunningham in his garden at Tiverton on Sunday night (2 Sept 2012). It is thought to be only the 17th ever record for Britain, the second ever for Devon and is a new species for North Devon (Vice-county 4).

Diplopseustis periersalis (Andrew Cunningham)

Diplopseustis perieresalis (Andrew Cunningham)

This pyralid moth is found widely across eastern asia, Australia and New Zealand, where it is thought that the larvae feed on rushes. In western Europe, the first sighting was in the year 2000 in Portugal, and the species has first occured in the UK (on the Isles of Scilly) in 2001. Further British sightings followed. The first mainland record was from Exeter, when Graham and Jean Jarvis found one in their garden trap in November 2007.

It is not clear how this moth managed to spread from the far east to western Europe, but it seems that it is established somewhere in the region and further immigration into Britain is likely in the future.